Tim Wheeler

Tim Wheeler

Office: HS 304
Office Hours:

Monday 10-11am

Friday 10-11am

Personal Website

Current Position

Master's Student in the McCutcheon Lab.

Thesis: The lichen genus Aspicilia

T.A. BIOB 160N Lab Sections 12 and 14


McCune, B., R. Rosentreter, T. Spribille, O. Breuss and T. Wheeler. 2014. Montana Lichens: An Annotated List. Monographs in North American Luchenology 2: 1-183.

Nelson, PR, B. McCune, T.B. Wheeler, L.H. Geiser, C.M. Crisafulli. 2014. Lichen community development along a volcanic disturbance gradient at Mount St. Helens. In Ecological Responses at Mount St. Helens: Revisited 35 Years After the 1980 Eruption. New York, USA. Springer. 

Abstract: Lichen surveys were conducted across various disturbance gradients in Mount St. Helens National Monument. 

Peter R. Nelson and Tim Wheeler (2013). Cephalodia found on Fuscopannaria viridescens. The Lichenologist, 45, pp 694-696.

Abstract: The genus Fuscopannaria (Pannariaceae) is characterized by small squamules, often with a black prothallus, a hemiamyloid hymenium, simple ascospores with a smooth epispore, and a tube structure in the ascus tip. Most species are cyanobacterial, but two green-algal species are known; Fuscopannaria viridescens M. Jørg & Zhurb. and F. granulifera M. Jørg. & Upreti. Fuscopannaria viridescens grows terricolously in arctic and alpine habitats in Alaska and Russia (Jørgensen & Zhurbenko2002), whereas F. granulifera is known only from the type locality in India where it grows epiphytically near the tree line in the Himalaya (Jørgensen 2004). Vahliella globuligera (Fryday & M. Jørg.) M. Jørg., formerly in Fuscopannaria, is another squamulose, green-algal arctic species, distinguished from F. viridescens by its granular thallus and amyloid sheets instead of a tube/plug at the ascus apex.

Fuscopannaria viridescens has a distinctive habit, with plane, distal lobes that become upright and imbricate centrally (Fig. 1A), aptly likened to “cats-paws” (Jørgensen & Zhurbenko 2002), which is similar to the habit of well-developed Baeomyces placophyllus Ach. It is also the only green Fuscopannaria in North America, making it hard to mistake for other species, except possibly an overzealous Psoroma. The genus Psoroma has a dirty blackish blue hymenial amyloid reaction and ascospores with a textured epispore. Collections of F. viridescens made recently in the Denali and Gates of the Arctic National Parks and Preserves (Alaska, USA), possess minute, imbricate, darkened lobes (when wet) (Fig. 1E), which, upon further inspection, turned out to be cephalodia. We further studied this material to assess whether it could still be accommodated in F. viridescenss. lat., despite having cephalodia.

T. Spribille, C. R. Björk, S. Ekman, J. A. Elix, T. Goward, C. Printzen, T. Tønsberg and T. Wheeler 2009: Contributions to an epiphytic lichen flora of northwest North America: I. Eight new species from British Columbia inland rain forests. - The Bryologist 112(1): 109-137. 

Abstract: [New: Absconditella amabilis T. Sprib. sp. nov., Bacidina contecta S. Ekman & T. Sprib. sp. nov. (also Idaho and Montana), Biatora aureolepra T. Sprib. & Tønsberg sp. nov. (and Montana), B. ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen sp. nov., Collema coniophilum Goward sp. nov., Pertusaria diluta C. Björk, G. Thor & T. Wheeler sp. nov. (and Montana and Idaho), Schaereria brunnea C. Björk, T. Sprib. & T. Wheeler sp. nov., and Scoliciosporum abietinum T. Sprib. sp. nov. (and Montana). Notes on other related taxa are presented, including Absconditella celata reported new to North America.]

Sérusiaux, E., J. C. Villarreal A, T. Wheeler & B. Goffinet 2011: Recent origin, active speciation and dispersal for the lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales) in Macaronesia. - Journal of Biogeography 38(6): 1138-1151. 

Abstract: We reconstructed the phylogeny of the lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales) to assess the relationships of species endemic to Macaronesia. We estimated dates of divergences to test the hypothesis that the species arose in Macaronesia (neo-endemism) versus the oceanic archipelagos serving as refugia for formerly widespread taxa (palaeo-endemism). Location Cosmopolitan with a special focus on the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Methods DNA sequences were obtained from 18 species for three loci and analysed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. Divergence dates were estimated for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogeny using a relaxed molecular clock. Reconstruction of the ancestral geographical range was conducted using the Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree under a parsimony method. Results The backbone phylogenetic tree was fully supported, with Nephroma plumbeum as sister to all other species. Four strongly supported clades were detected: the Nephroma helveticum, the N. bellum, the N. laevigatum and the N. parile clades. The latter two share a common ancestor and each includes a widespread Holarctic species (N. laevigatum and N. parile, respectively) and all species endemic to Macaronesia. The data suggest a neo-endemic origin of Macaronesian taxa, a recent range expansion from Macaronesia of both widespread species, a range expansion limited to the Mediteranean Basin and south-western Europe for another taxon, and a long dispersal event that resulted in a speciation event in the western parts of North America. Main conclusions The Macaronesian endemic species belong to two sister clades and originated from a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) shared with one widely distributed taxon, either N. parile or N. laevigatum. Estimates of the mean divergence dates suggest that the endemics originated in the archipelagos after the rise of the volcanic islands, along with the ancestor to the now widespread species, which probably expanded their range beyond Macaronesia via long-distance dispersal. This study provides the first phylogenetic evidence of Macaronesian neo-endemism in lichenized fungi and provides support for the hypothesis that oceanic islands may serve as a source for the colonization of continents. However, further data are needed to properly assess the alternative hypothesis, namely colonization from western North America.

Muggia, L./ P. Nelson/ T. Wheeler/ L. S. Yakovchenko/ T. Tønsberg/ T. Spribille 2011: Convergent evolution of a symbiotic duet: The case of the lichen genus Polychidium (Peltigerales, Ascomycota). - American Journal of Botany98(10): 1647-1656. 

Abstract: Premise of the study: Thallus architecture has long been a powerful guide for classifying lichens and has often trumped photobiont association and ascomatal type, but the reliability of these characters to predict phylogenetic affinity has seldom been tested. The cyanolichen genus Polychidium unites species that have strikingly similar gross morphology but consort with different photobiont genera. If Polychidium were found to be monophyletic, photobiont switching among closely related species would be suggested. If, however, species were found to arise in different lineages, a convergent body plan and ascomatal type evolution would be inferred. Methods: We tested the monophyly of Polychidium with a multilocus phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from all known Peltigeralean families and reconstructed ancestral states for specific thallus architecture and ascomatal ontogeny types relative to Polychidium and other clades. Key results: We found that Polychidium consists of two species groups that arose independently in different suborders within the Peltigerales, associated with Nostoc and Scytonema photobionts, respectively. We infer from ancestral character state reconstruction that dendroid thallus architecture evolved independently in these two lineages. Conclusions: The independent development of similar dendroid thallus architecture in different fungal suborders with different photobionts represents a clear and previously overlooked example of convergent evolution in lichens. Our results also suggest a pattern of character state conservation, loss, and reversion in ascomatal ontogeny types, hitherto considered conserved traits useful for higher level ascomycete systematics.

Lumbsch, H. T./ T. Ahti/ S. Altermann/ G. Amo De Paz/ A. Aptroot/ U. Arup/ A. Bárcenas Peña/ P. A. Bawingan/ M. N. Benatti/ L. Betancourt/ C. R. Björk/ K. Boonpragob/ M. Brand/ F. Bungartz/ M. E. S. Cáceres/ M. Candan/ J. L. Chaves/ P. Clerc/ R. Common/ B. J. Coppins/ A. Crespo/ M. Dal-Forno/ P. K. Divakar/ M. V. Duya/ J. A. Elix/ A. Elvebakk/ J. D. Fankhauser/ E. Farkas/ L. Itatí Ferraro/ E. Fischer/ D. J. Galloway/ E. Gaya/ M. Giralt/ T. Goward/ M. Grube/ J. Hafellner/ J. E. Hernández M./ M. A. Herrera Campos/ K. Kalb/ I. Kärnefelt/ G. Kantvilas/ D. Killmann/ P. Kirika/ K. Knudsen/ H. Komposch/ S. Kondratyuk/ J. D. Lawrey/ A. Mangold/ M. P. Marcelli/ B. McCune/ M. I. Messuti/ A. Michlig/ R. Miranda González/ B. Moncada/ A. Naikatini/ M. P. Nelsen/ D. O. Øvstedal/ Z. Palice/ K. Papong/ S. Parnmen/ S. Pérez-Ortega/ C. Printzen/ V. J. Rico/ E. Rivas Plata/ J. Robayo/ D. Rosabal/ U. Ruprecht/ N. Salazar Allen/ L. Sancho/ L. Santos De Jesus/ T. Santos Vieira/ M. Schultz/ M. R. D. Seaward/ E. Sérusiaux/ I. Schmitt/ H. J. M. Sipman/ M. Sohrabi/ U. Søchting/ M. Z. Søgaard/ L. B. Sparrius/ A. Spielmann/ T. Spribille/ J. Sutjaritturakan/ A. Thammathaworn/ A. Thell/ G. Thor/ H. Thüs/ E. Timdal/ C. Truong/ R. Türk/ L. Umaña Tenorio/ D. K. Upreti/ P. van den Boom/ M. Vivas Rebuelta/ M. Wedin/ S. Will-Wolf/ V. Wirth/ N. Wirtz/ R. Yahr/ K. Yeshitela/ F. Ziemmeck/ T.Wheeler/ R. Lücking 2011: One hundred new species of lichenized fungi: a signature of undiscovered global diversity. - Phytotaxa 18: 1-127. 

Notes: New species: Acarospora flavisparsa V.J.Rico & Candan, Acarospora janae K. Knudsen, Aderkomyces thailandicus Papong, Boonpragob & Lücking, Amandinea maritima Giralt, van den Boom & Elix, Ampliotrema cocosenseLücking & Chaves, Anomomorpha lecanorina Sipman, Anomomorpha tuberculata Lücking, Umaña & Will-Wolf, Aspicilia mansourii Sohrabi, Bacidina sorediata Seaward & Lücking, Badimia multiseptata Papong & Lücking, Badimia vezdana Lücking, Farkas & Wirth, Biatora epirotica Printzen & T.Sprib., Buellia sulphurica Bungartz & Aptroot, Bunodophoron pinnatum Wedin, Byssoloma spinulosum Sérus., Calopadia cinereopruinosa Bungartz & Lücking, Calopadia editae VÄ•zda ex Chaves & Lücking, Caloplaca brownlieae S.Y.Kondr., Elix & Kärnefelt, Caloplaca decipioides Arup, Caloplaca digitaurea Søgaard, Søchting & Sancho, Caloplaca magnussoniana S.Y.Kondr., Kärnefelt & A.Thell, Caloplaca mereschkowskiana S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Caloplaca yorkensis S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt, Calvitimela uniseptata G.Thor, Chapsa microspora Kalb, Chapsa psoromica M.Cáceres, Santos de Jesus & Santos Vieira, Chapsa rubropulveraceaHale ex Mangold, Lücking & Lumbsch, Chapsa thallotrema Lücking & N.Salazar, Chiodecton pustuliferum Aptroot, Cladonia mongkolsukii Parnmen & Ahti, Clypeopyrenis porinoides Komposch, J.E.Hern. & Rosabal, Coccocarpia delicatula Bungartz, Ziemmeck & Lücking, Coenogonium flammeum L.I.Ferraro, Michlig & Lücking, Cresponea ancistrosporelloides Sparrius & Sipman, Crocynia microphyllina Aptroot, Dictyonema hernandezii Lücking, Lawrey & Dal-Forno, Dictyonema hirsutum Moncada & Lücking, Diorygma microsporum M.Cáceres & Lücking, Diorygma sticticum Sutjaritturakan, Kalb & Lücking, Echinoplaca pernambucensis Øvstedal & Elix, Echinoplaca schizidiifera J.E.Hern. & Lücking, Eremithallus marusae R.Miranda, Gaya & Lücking, Everniastrum constictovexans Sipman, Fellhanera borbonica Sérus., van den Boom & Brand, Fibrillithecis sprucei Mangold, Lücking & Lumbsch, Fissurina astroisidiataHerrera-Campos & Lücking, Fissurina nigrolabiata Rivas Plata, Bawingan & Lücking, Fissurina subcomparimuralis Common & Lücking, Graphis caribica Lücking, Graphis cerradensis Marcelli, Benatti & Lücking, Graphis itatiaiensisNelsen, Lücking & Spielmann, Graphis marusae B.Peña & Lücking, Gyalideopsis chicaque Moncada & Lücking, Gyrotrema papillatum Lücking, Harpidium gavilaniae Amo, Pérez-Ortega & A. Crespo, Hypogymnia amplexa Goward, Björk & Wheeler, Hypotrachyna guatemalensis Elix & van den Boom, Hypotrachyna indica Divakar, Lumbsch, Upreti & A.Crespo, Hypotrachyna lueckingii Sipman, Hypotrachyna paracitrella Sipman & Palice, Hypotrachyna paraphyscioidesSipman, Hypotrachyna parasinuosa Sipman & Palice, Icmadophila eucalypti Kantvilas, Krogia microphylla Timdal, Lecanora mugaii Kirika, I.Schmitt, Fankhauser & Lumbsch, Lecanora printzenii Pérez-Ortega, Vivas & Hafellner,Lecanora xanthoplumosella Lumbsch & Elix, Lecidea lygommella Elix, Lecidella greenii U.Ruprecht & Türk, Lempholemma corticola M.Schultz & T.Sprib., Lepraria sekikaica Elix, Lobariella sipmanii Moncada, Betancourt & Lücking,Megalospora austropacifica Lumbsch, Naikatini & Lücking, Megalospora galapagoensis Bungartz, Ziemmeck & Lücking, Menegazzia endocrocea Kantvilas, Myriotrema endoflavescens Hale ex Lücking, Ocellularia albobullata Lücking, Sipman & Grube, Ocellularia vizcayensis Rivas Plata, Duya & Lücking, Ochrolechia insularis Kantvilas & Elix, Opegrapha viridipruinosa B.J.Coppins & R.Yahr, Pannaria phyllidiata Elvebakk, Parmelia asiatica A.Crespo & Divakar,Pertusaria conspersa Messuti, Phlyctis psoromica Elix & Kantvilas, Placopsis imshaugii D.J.Galloway, Platismatia wheeleri Goward, Altermann & Björk, Porina huainamdungensis Papong, Thammathaworn & Lücking, Ramalina hyrcanaSipman, Ramalina stoffersii Sipman, Relicina coloiana Elix & Sipman, Rhizocarpon diploschistidina McCune, Sagenidiopsis isidiata G.Thor, Elix, Lücking & Sipman, Sticta venosa Lücking, Moncada & Robayo, Tapellaria albomarginataLücking, Thelotrema fijiense Lumbsch, Lücking & Naikatini, Tricharia nigriuncinata Yeshitela, Eb.Fischer, Killmann & Sérus., Usnea galapagona Truong & P.Clerc, Usnea pallidocarpa Wirtz & Lumbsch, Verrucaria rhizicola Aptroot & Thüs, and Xanthomendoza rosmarieae S.Y.Kondr. & Kärnefelt; new combinations: Fibrillithecis dehiscens (Leight.) Mangold, Lücking & Lumbsch, Lobariella botryoides (Yoshim. & Arv.) Moncada & Lücking, and Lobariella pallida(Hook.f.) Moncada & Lücking.