Kinematics and Aerodynamics of Avian Upstrokes During Slow Flight

avian bird

Slow flight is extremely energetically costly per unit time, yet highly important for takeoff and survival. Kristen Crandell and Bret Tobalske investigated the kinematics and aerodynamics of upstrokes during slow flight. Check out their new paper here (and the image that made the cover of the Journal of Experimental Biology)!