Natural Language Processing systems are computer algorithms that analyze language.  Our lab is at the forefront of connecting human psychology to natural language processing or artificial intelligence (AI).  We are especially (but not exclusively) interested in natural language processing of the complexity of language.

To that end, we have developed a state-of-the-art natural language processing system that scores the integrative complexity, dialectical complexity, and elaborative complexity of language.  This system was originally validated in two papers (Conway et al., 2014, Political Psychology; Houck et al, 2014, Political Psychology).  It has since been applied to gain insights about human behavior in mulitple arenas, including those relevant to security/terrorism, decision-making, political ideology, personality, leadership, health, religion, business/industry, education, and popular culture.  Updated evidence that clearly validates the system as an excellent tool for measuring integrative complexity is found in one of our recent papers (Conway et al., 2020, Journal of Social and Political Psychology). A sampling of our own work related to natural language processing of complex language is below:

Woodard, S. R., Chan, L., & Conway, L. G., III (in press). In search of the cognitively complex person: To what degree is cognitive complexity a generalized individual difference variable? Personality and Social Psychology Review, XX, XX-XX.

Conway, L. G, III, Houck, S. C., Chan, L., Repke, M. A., & McFarland, J. (in press). The agreement paradox: How pressures for agreement can ultimately divide us. In J.-W. van Prooijen (Ed.), Current Issues in Social Psychology: Political Polarization. New York: Routledge. 

Houck, S. C., Conway, L.G., III, & Zubrod, A. (in press). Automated language analysis: Integrative complexity. In R. Boyd & M. Dehghani (Eds.), The Atlas of Language Analysis in Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Conway, L. G., III, Conway, K. R., & Houck, S. C. (2020). Validating Automated Integrative Complexity: Natural language processing and the Donald Trump test. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 8, 504-524.

Zubrod, A., Conway, L. G., III, Conway, K. R., & Ailanjian, D. (2020). Understanding the role of linguistic complexity in famous trial outcomes. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, XX, XX-XX.

Conway, L. G., III, & Woodard, S. R. (2019).  Integrative complexity across domains and across time: Evidence from political and health domains.  Personality and Individual Differences. DOI:

Conway, L. G., III, Suedfeld, P., & Tetlock, P. E. (2018).  Integrative complexity in politics.  In A. Mintz (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Political Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190634131.013.7

Houck, S. C., Conway, L. G. III, Parrow, K., & Luce, A., & Salvati, J. (2018). An integrative complexity analysis of religious and irreligious thinkingSage Open. 

McCullough, H., & Conway, L. G., III.  (2018a). The cognitive complexity of Miss Piggy and Osama Bin Laden: Examining linguistic differences between fiction and realityPsychology of Popular Media Culture, 7, 518-532.

McCullough, H., & Conway, L. G., III.  (2018b). “And the Oscar goes to…”: Integrative complexity’s predictive power in the film industry.  Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 12, 392-398.  DOI:

Houck, S. C., Repke, M. A., & Conway, L. G., III.  (2017). Understanding what makes terrorist groups’ propaganda effective: An integrative complexity analysis of ISIL and Al QaedaJournal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 12, 105-118. DOI:10.1080/18335330.2017.1351032

Conway, L. G., III, Conway, K. R., Gornick, L. J., & Houck, S. C. (2014). Automated integrative complexity. Political Psychology, 35, 603-624.

Houck, S. C., Conway, L. G., III, & Gornick, L. J. (2014). Automated integrative complexity: Current challenges and future directions. Political Psychology, 35, 647-659.

Conway, L. G., III, & Zubrod, A. (manuscript in progress). The integrative complexity of Donald Trump: Is Trump a unique outlier or an extension of a republican trend towards simplicity?

Conway, L. G., III, Houck, S. C., & Repke, M. R. (manuscript in progress).  Resource scarcity and integrative complexity: Triangulating evidence that resource threat makes Americans think less dialectically.